Splice - and whip and tongue grafting continued

Shots on rootstocks i remove as they come
Shots on rootstocks i remove as they come.
larva of the Grey Dagger (Acronicta psi)
Watch out for insects, that can quickly eat the leaves from a small apple tree. Here is a larva of the Grey Dagger (Acronicta psi).
Rootstocks in pots
Rootstocks in pots.
At least a couple of weeks before I grafts, I'm planting rootstocks in pots. The tree's roots begin to grow in early spring before the buds break. I usually use M7 rootstocks, giving medium size trees.

Double grafted apple tree.

Double grafted apple tree.
The grafting methods can also be used to graft a new apple cultivar on an established tree. The picture shows a double grafting for a particular purpose. The tree is an apple tree from seed. To get the tree to more quickly provide apples. I have grafted a fragment of a dwarfing rootstock into the middle of a branch.
An experiment with red food coloring
An experiment with red food coloring. 2 scions, one is grafted in the middle. When the grafting is perfect, the colored water is sucked up at the same rate.

Cross section of the scion, which has absorbed water with red food coloring.
Cross section of the scion, which has absorbed water with red food coloring. Water moves through the plant by means of capillary action. The capillary action takes place in the xylem.

Cross section of grafting one year old
Cross section of grafting one year old. The bottom are dwarfing rootstock M7. The reddish xylem are Estonian Wine Apple. Xylem is dead tissue. With the new growth, the xylem unites and makes the grafting strong.

When to graft

Suitable grafting time is spring, before the buds pop open.

At temperatures around 0 degrees is the apple trees in "sleep", and there is no callus formation. At a temperature between 3 and 5 degrees callus is formed only slightly over several months. Callus formation increases at higher temperatures. At about 7 degrees takes approximately callus formation. 2 months. At 21 degrees, it takes approx. 1 month. At temperatures greater than 32 degrees occurs frequently damage. At temperatures above 40 degrees dies scar tissue within a few days.

My conclusion is, the optimum temperature by grafting apple, to achieve a fast and secure adhesion between the scions and the rootstocks is about 20 degrees.

Source. Biology of apples and pears by John Ellwood Jackson.

Blooming mirabelle. Its a sign for me to start grafting.
Blooming mirabelle. Its a sign for me to start grafting.
 

Back to grafting site 1 or goto Experiments with grafting

 




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About, apple trees from seed, apple tree varieties, chip budding, grafting, rootstocks, scions, T-budding