Experiments with grafting

 

An apple scions is put in water with red food coloring. In the spring, when the bark is loosened, the red staining are first seen in the edge of the scions. Water and the red color are gradually distributed through vessels and rays to the whole xylem.

 
Is water transport in xylem vessels and rays sufficient supply of graft?This is ​​a grafting, where there are no contact between the cambium of the scion and the cambium of the rootstock at any point.
After 2.5 month the scion is still alive, but progress has stalled. There is no height growth.
Cross section following year. After the approx. 2.5 months the buds of the scion began to grow. It appears that the rootstock has formed scar tissue that surrounds the scion. Water transport in xylem vessels and rays was sufficient supply of graft to stay alive.
Here are a grafting which is different from the prev, in that the cambium of the scion are in contact with the cambium of the rootstock at one side.
The grafting is doing fine. After 2 months there are fine shoots.
Cross section following year. Where the cambium of the scion was in contact with the cambium of the rootstock, it is seen that the new xylem, that emerged during the year, are completely fused.
My conclusion of the experiment is that close contact between the xylem of scion and rootstock are important for that the scion is kept alive until intergrowth has happened, and that there is contact between cambium on both sides of the grafting.
The photo shows the cross section of a grafting following year. Graftings after a year should ideally look like the picture above.
 

Whip and tongue grafting versus splice grafting

Whip and tongue grafting

Whip and tongue grafting are some places popular. I don't understand why. The tongue cut is a technically difficult method. It is performed at start like the splice grafing. But then identical cuts are made in both stock and scion to create the tongue. As seen in the photo.

Whip and tongue grafting Whip and tongue grafting
I have tried to make my first whip and tongue grafting. It's not easy. I have used several attempts to get the pieces to fit together. It did not quite succeed.
For several years I have grafted about 100 apple trees per year with splice grafting. After I started using a grafting planer, the success rate has been close to 100%.
Splice grafting is an easy and effective method.

Testing whip and tongue grafting versus splice grafting

Apple scions is put in water with red food coloring. The red colour indicates the hability to distributed water through vessels and rays to the whole xylem. On the fotos belowe are scions of the same lenghts, but cut in the midle, and spliced together with a splice graft (left) and whip and tongue graft right.
As expected the whole scions sucks most colored water. Comparing the two types of grafts there are no difference.

Splice grafting Whip and tongue grafting
The picture above shows a graft where the scion was about. 2 mm thick at the time of grafting. There are used splice grafting. I can not imagine that it could be done with a whip and tongue grafting without damaging the scion.
I have read the argument that whip and tongue grafting should provide a stronger joint. But it is not true, as it is the new thickness growth that creates a strong joint and it is the same for both types of grafting.




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